Here's what I'm not understanding...
As the CS Roundtable Commissioner, how did you not already know of this rule? Whether by word of mouth from other District Cub leaders or by the visits/discussions with this troop prior to your joining it? I know that every prospective parent meeting we sit in, stuff like this is brought up by us or the parent (our troop also doesn't allow women to camp with the troop, but they can be an ASM, all of which is another story for a different thread).
The bulk of this parents scout training and experience is in Cubs, where parents (often times, mothers) have to serve as adult volunteers to literally run the program. Boy Scouts is not like that. I've seen time and again, long time Cub adults come to Boy Scout troops thinking they have to volunteer like they used to, and that's not necessarily the case any longer. Why not keep working with the Cubs, while your son moves up to Boy Scouts? What's wrong with being a overly trained member of the Troop Committee or one day, the Chair?
Your Wood Badge training teaches you that all this is about the Boys, not the beads (or any other adult awards/recognition). I'm not saying you should up and leave the troop nor am I saying that you need to stay because your son has already made friends. But what I would say is this, talk with your son. Ask him bluntly and honestly and see if he wants you to be around as much as you're wanting to. Then take his answer and accept it. If he wants you around on these campouts and other outings, tell him of the troop's (CO) woman policy and see what he'd like to do, stay or visit other troops? If he doesn't, accept it, and maybe find another position within the troop (or district) to continue to serve in, and at the same time, have interaction with your son in a Scouting experience.
Our troop doesn't allow mom's to camp with the troop, but that doesn't mean they can't be heavily involved. A number of them are.
The troop I grew up in, not long ago, had serious problems finding enough adults to "staff" troop outings, I think we had some events that got cancelled because we didn't have the adults to do them. My mom really enjoyed camping and hiking and everything (she's done parts of the AT), but for some reason, she never offered to go, or we (the troop or her sons) never asked her to go with us. I have no idea if that made her mad or upset, but she never voiced that to me for whatever reason. All that to say, I still look back on my Scouting days as a youth with very high regard and would do everything all over again in a second and she knows that.
I'm sorry this has you so upset, hopefully you'll figure something out and your son will have a valuable Scouting experience with or without you.